Introduction of the Ministry for the National Drinking Water Program
- The Ministry of Jal Shakti was established in May 2019 under the Government of India
- There are two Ministries in particular the Ministry of Water Resources Rivers Development and Ganga Rehabilitation as well as the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
A Vision of the National Drinking Water Program
- Its aim is to provide safe drinking water to all rural dwellings, and public schools and safe drinking water to Anganwadis.
- Its aim is to provide safe and adequate water for every rural person to cook on a sustainable basis and for other household needs.
- The National Drinking Water Program maintains a 50:50 funding-sharing agreement between the centre and the states.
- The program continued until March 2020 with the 14th Financial Commission.
- It intends to give drinking water (55 litres for each capita each day) to 50 percent of the country’s rural population through the piped water supply.
- the scheme likewise tried to give 35% of rural households water connections.
- The Sustainable Development Goals 2015 – 2030 incorporate Goal 6 for clean water and sanitation for their accessibility and sustainable management.
- Goal 6.1 specifically states that by 2030 all countries, including India, should have universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water.
Steps were taken by the Government
- Based on the Bhore Committee 1946, the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Program (ARWSP) was first implemented in 1972-73.
- The National Water Policy was first formulated in 1987 to give a precise direction to the approach followed to develop sustainable water infrastructure.
- Swajal Dhara Scheme 1999 was introduced through empowerment and partnership for local communities.
- The Department of Drinking Water Supply was established in 1999 in the Ministry of Rural Development.
- Bharat Nirman is a major program of the Central Government which has designed the infrastructure required to provide good quality water to rural households.
- The National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP) 2009, was a centrally sponsored scheme designed to ensure that all households had access to safe and adequate drinking water on the premises and to use it as much as possible.
- Launched “Har Ghar Jal”, it expects to give water supply by 2030 under the Jal Jeevan Mission in accordance with the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
- The pilot project started by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation is called “Swajal”.
The initiative was taken by the Ministry of Jal Shakti
Jal Jeevan Mission
- Jal Jeevan Mission aims to provide safe and adequate drinking water to all households in rural India by 2024 through individual household tap connections.
- The Jal Jeevan Mission is based on a community approach to water and includes a wide range of information, education and communication as a key element in the mission.
Jal Shakti Abhiyan
- The Ministry of Jal Shakti is conducting a nationwide campaign during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of 2022 from 29 March 2022 to 30 November 2022 under the theme “Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain, Where It Falls, When It Falls”, which covers urban and rural areas in all districts of the country.
Namani Gange Programme
- The ‘Namami Ganga Program’ is an integrated conservation mission that was approved by the Central Government in June 2014 as a ‘Flagship Program’ with a budget of Rs.20,000 Crore to Achieve the twin goals of effectively reducing the pollution, conservation, and rejuvenation of the National River Ganges.
National Aquifer Mapping Programme
- Aquifer mapping can be defined as a scientific process in which a combination of geological, geological, aquatic, and chemical fields and laboratory analyzes are applied to classify the quantity, quality, and stability of groundwater in reservoirs.
- Systematic aquifer mapping enhances our understanding of the geographical framework of reservoirs, their hydrologic properties, water levels in reservoirs, How they change over time and the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants that affect the potability of groundwater.
Atal Bhujal Yojana
- Atal Bhujal Yojana (ATAL JAL) is a central sector scheme to facilitate sustainable groundwater management at a cost of `6000 crore.
- The scheme prioritizes community participation and demand-side interventions for sustainable groundwater management in identified water-stressed areas in seven states of the country.
PM Krishi Sinchai Yojana
- The Prime Minister’s Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) is designed to expand irrigation coverage ‘Har Khet Ko Pani’ and improve water use efficiency with an end-to-end solution focusing on the creation of ‘one crop per drop’, distribution, management, field application, and extension activities.
Steps to Implement Jal Jeevan Mission
- National Jal Jeevan mission at the central level
- State water and sanitation mission at the state level
- District water and sanitation mission at the district level
- The Gram Panchayat and its sub-committees are the Village Water Sanitation Committee or the Pani Samiti at the village level
- The fund released by the central government to the state government is to be deposited in one single Nodal account that will be maintained by SWSM.
Public Bodies involved in Rural Water Supply
Central Water Commission
- The Central Water Commission is India’s leading technology body in the field of water resources and is currently affiliated with the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rehabilitation, Ministry of Water Energy, and the Government of India.
Center Ground Water Board
- Overseeing and implementing national policies for the scientific and sustainable development and management of Indian groundwater resources, including the development and dissemination of technologies, and their exploration, assessment, conservation, enhancement, protection from pollution, and distribution based on the principles of economic and environmental efficiency.
National Rivers Conservation Directorate
- The National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD), a former directorate under the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change has now become a part of the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
- The NRCD implements centrally sponsored schemes of the National Conservation Plan (NRCP) and the National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems (NPCA) for the conservation of rivers, lakes, and wetlands in the country. In the past, the activities of NRCD have been dedicated to pollution prevention.
Some of the Effective Programs
- Rainwater harvesting is one of the most important initiatives that will help in the long run to maintain a safe fresh water supply in rural areas.
- The Central Groundwater Board has prepared a conceptual document entitled Master Plan for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater in India.
- In 2001 the Government of Tamil Nadu made it required for each family to have a water-collecting foundation and its outcomes are presently reflected in water quality after 5 years.
- Importance of Berries is a traditional method of collecting rainwater in part of western Rajasthan.
- In addition to ensuring that every home has a water connection, there is also a need to ensure the availability of water in these tabs.
- In India, there is a mismatch between water demand and water availability by 2050.
- Indian States and policymakers should be properly trained and designed to effectively implement water management strategies.
- The CAG noted that 21 states have not developed water security plans
- According to global reports released by the United Nations, 2.1 billion people live without safe drinking water at home and 80 percent of those who need to use unsafe water resources live in rural areas.
- The severe impact of water scarcity could displace 700 million people by 2030.
- World water consumption is doubling every 20 years
- State governments need a regulatory body to curb the over-exploitation of groundwater, which is a major problem in India.
- Recently the role of Panchayati Raj institutions has been very low and more reels of PRIs are required in implementing drinking water supply schemes.
- Empower local committees to manage and oversee polar drinking sources and systems
- MGENREGA, PM Krishi Sinchai Yojana Other schemes for water resource development and water resource rehabilitation are supported by village-level water plan
- Sanitation management is a key factor in achieving water security
- The assurance of individual NGOs and various associations in the water management process is cycle is very absent
- The departments need to unite and come together to address the water crisis in the country
- The CEAG recommends that water safety plans and annual action plans be prepared in partnership with the community