India has struggled to maintain its fast economic expansion while fighting the threat posed by global climate change. It is likely to experience significant dangers as a result of the anticipated climatic changes because of the economy’s deep ties to its natural resources and sectors that are sensitive to climates, such as forestry, agriculture, and water.
The following effects of significant climate change on water supplies have been noted by the government. Water storage and conservation are major issues for every country due to the fact that the water supply per person is decreasing yearly, groundwater levels are declining, there are more lengthy droughts, and there are more floods due to excessive rainfall.
In 2011, the National Water Mission officially started. The National Water Mission is one of eight National Missions established by the Indian government as part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. Through integrated water resource development and management, NWM’s primary objective is the conservation of water, minimizing wastage, and assuring a more equitable system both across and within States. The Mission will consider the demands of the National Water Policy and provide a system to optimize water usage by increasing water use efficiency by 20% through regulatory mechanisms with varying rights and pricing.
Objectives of the National Water Mission
- To provide a system for the most effective use of water by achieving a 20% increase in water usage efficiency through regulatory mechanisms with different entitlements and costs, while taking into consideration the National Water Policy (NWP).
- To make sure that a large amount of the water demands of urban areas may be fulfilled by recycling wastewater.
- To use material removal, and efficient technology to provide coastal towns with water when there aren’t enough other water sources, such as low-temperature desalination techniques that use ocean water
- To provide integrated water resource management for resource distribution equally across and among states, waste reduction, and water conservation.
- To encourage the employment of water-neutral and water-positive technologies, a large-scale irrigation program based on efficient irrigation methods and the refilling of underground water sources is to be implemented.
Goals of the National Water Mission
- The primary goals for water distribution include drinking water, agriculture, hydropower, navigation, industry, and other purposes.
- The water tariffs for both surface water and groundwater should be rationalized while taking into account the needs of small and marginal farmers.
- The strategy also covers controlling erosion, farmers’ participation, water quality, water zoning, water conservation, and managing floods and droughts.
- Standards for the security of water-related infrastructure, including storage dams.
- Management over groundwater resources.
Significance of National Water Mission
- Reverse osmosis is used to desalinate saltwater and greywater.
- Reuse and recycle water wherever you can.
- Technologies for purifying water.
- Improving the storage capabilities of hydroelectric plants with multiple uses and fusing drainage and irrigation infrastructures.
Activities of the National Water Mission
- Delivering informative and inspiring events, planning massive awareness campaigns, establishing a good environment complete with wall art, etc. are all part of the IEC’s efforts.
- Using a range of IEC programs, NYKS will conduct an awareness campaign in 623 districts between December 2020 and March 2021 in order to get ready for Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) II.
- Restoring water to aquifers by using old wells and abandoned boreholes in addition to conventional WHS like step-well repairs.
- Removing obstructions from the canals that transport water from catchment areas.
- Storage capacity can be increased by eliminating encroachments and desilting tanks.
Water Distribution and Sustainability
- India is moving closer to a water shortage as a result of the overuse of water supplies and a decrease in water supply brought on by climate change.
- In addition to this, a number of government initiatives, particularly those that concern agriculture, have led to the overuse of water. India’s economy is water-stressed as a result of these causes. In this situation, water resources and conservation are essential.
- India generally consumes around 1,100 billion cubic meters of water annually, and by 2050, that amount is expected to rise to 1,447 billion cubic meters.
- Despite having 16% of the world’s population, India only possesses 4% of the world’s freshwater resources. Due to varying weather patterns and ongoing droughts, India is under drought conditions.
- Many areas of India are facing fast groundwater depletion, according to the Central Ground Water Board, as a result of the 230 billion meter cubes of groundwater that are withdrawn each year for the irrigation of agricultural crops.
- In India, between 122 and 199 billion meter cubes of groundwater are thought to have been drained.
The strategies for fulfilling the objectives of the “National Water Mission” are detailed in this Comprehensive Mission Document:
The document contains two volumes covering the financial requirements and reports of separate sub-committees necessary for the mission. The various subcommittee includes the Surface Water Management committee; Efficient use of water for various purposes committee; Domestic and Industrial Water management committee; Policy and Institutional framework committee; Groundwater management committee; Basin level planning and management.
- A huge public water database, an analysis of the effects of climate change on water resources.
- Focus on vulnerable regions, such as those that are overused,
- 20 percent more water use efficiency, and
- Promotion of integrated basin-level water resource management.
- Encouragement of state and community initiatives for water conservation, supplementation, and preservation.
National Water Mission Awards 2019:
- This honour goes to the Environmental Planning and Coordination Organisation (EPCO), Department of Environment, Bhopal, for its analysis of how climate change is affecting water supplies.
- The winners of the promotion of citizen and state action for water conservation, augmentation, and preservation are the Water Resources
- The mission statement of the National Water Mission includes 39 methods and 5 goals.
- One of the strategies is to provide organizations incentives. It has been agreed to provide “National Water Mission Awards” in accord with this Mission to recognize accomplishments in water conservation, efficient water use, and sustainable water management.
- The winners of this prize for their extensive public water database are the Water Resources Department of the Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Irrigation and CAD Department of the Government of Telangana.
- In the area of focused attention on vulnerable regions, particularly over-exploited areas, Ambuja Cement Foundation and the State Ground Water Department, Government of Telangana, are the winners.