About Mineral source
- There are three minerals belts in India-
The North-Eastern Plateau Region;
The South-Western Plateau Region;
The North-Western Region.
- India is one of the richest countries in mineral resources in the world.
- Since India’s internal structure of the earth is the product of ancient hard rocks are therefore almost all kinds of minerals are found here, especially in Gondwana rocks.
- Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in the peninsular plateau region in the old crystalline rocks.
- Over 97 per cent of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi and Godavari.
- Petroleum reserves are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam, Gujarat and Mumbai High i.e. off-shore region in the Arabian Sea.
- New reserves have been located in the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basins.
- Most of the major mineral resources occur to the east of a line linking Mangalore and Kanpur.
- Minerals are generally concentrated in three broad belts in India.
- There may be some sporadic occurrences here and there in isolated pockets.
The North-Eastern Plateau Region
- This belt covers Chotanagpur (Jharkhand), Orissa Plateau, West Bengal and parts of Chhattisgarh.
- It has a variety of minerals like iron ore coal, manganese, bauxite, and mica.
The South-Western Plateau Region
- This belt extends over Karnataka, Goa and contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala.
- This belt is rich in ferrous metals and bauxite.
- It also contains high-grade iron ore, manganese and limestone. This belt packs in coal deposits except for Neyveli lignite.
- This belt does not have as diversified mineral deposits as the northeastern belt.
- Kerala has deposits of monazite and thorium, bauxite clay.
- Goa has iron ore deposits.
The North-Western Region
- This belt extends along Aravali in Rajasthan and part of Gujarat and minerals are associated with the Dharwar system of rocks.
- Copper and zinc have been major minerals. Rajasthan is rich in building stones i.e. sandstone, granite, and marble.
- Gypsum and Fuller’s earth deposits are also extensive.
- Dolomite and limestone provide raw materials for the cement industry.
- Gujarat is known for its petroleum deposits.
- The Himalayan belt is another mineral belt where copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and tungsten are known to occur.
- They occur in both the eastern and western parts.
- Assam valley has mineral oil deposits.
- Besides oil resources are also found in off-shore areas near Mumbai Coast (Mumbai High).