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High Courts in India

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Bharathi Pradeep
Bharathi Pradeephttps://www.getcooltricks.com/
Editor at GetCoolTricks.com. Bharathi covers topics on Competitive exams, How To guides, Current exams, Current Affairs, Study Materials, etc. Follow her on social media using the links below.

In India, there are 25 High Courts. The Indian High Courts Act 1861, which proposed the formation of High Courts in place of the Supreme Court in three Presidencies—Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay—was passed by the Parliament in 1858 on the advice of the Law Commission. In May 1862, the High Court of Calcutta received its charter, while Madras and Bombay received theirs in June 1862.

The requirement for a distinct judicial body for several states served as the justification for the enactment of this statute. Therefore, the British Government decided to replace the then-existing Supreme Court and Sadar Adalat with the High Court.

Following independence, it was ruled that each Indian state must have its own High Court in accordance with Article 214 of the Indian Constitution. Specific guidelines and qualifying requirements were established for the appointment of judges in all High Courts.

After India gained its independence, the entire legal system changed, and rules issued by the British were different from those found in the Indian Penal Code.

Newest High Court of India

The High Court was most recently established in Andhra Pradesh. On January 1st, 2019, Andhra Pradesh created its High Court. Each High Court under British rule has a Chief Justice and a maximum of 15 other puisne justices. But throughout time, the formation of the Indian High Court underwent certain adjustments:

  • The President shall appoint the Chief Justice of each High Court.
  • Unlike before, each High Court might appoint an unlimited number of judges.
  • Additional judges may also be appointed to adjudicate matters that are still pending in court. But they are only allowed to serve for a maximum of two years.

Appointment of Judges of the high court

The process of Appointment of Judges of the high court is very simple. The President of India decides who will be judges of the high court and also he is the only person who decides who will be the Chief Justice of the High Court but The President of India have the right to take advice from the governor of the state and chief justice of India about these appointments.

Qualifications of Judges of the high court

  • You must be an Indian citizen,
  • you must be under the age of 62,
  • At least ten years of experience as a High Court Advocate,
  • Or must be a judge at district court for at least 10 years

Oath of Judges of the high court

If you are appointed as the judge of the high court then you have to take oath in front of the governor of the state, sometimes it is also possible that the governor can send some other person in place of himself.

Salary of judges of the high court

Chief justice of high courts gets 2,50,000 rupees per month and 34,000 per month as Sumptuary Allowance. On the other hand judges of high courts get 2,25,000 rupees per month and 27,000 per month as Sumptuary Allowance.

The total strength of judges in the high court

The Constitution of India does not specify how many judges will be in a High Court. The President of India decides how many judges will be in a High Court but there is a chef justice in every high court.

High Court Judges’ Tenure

It is not written anywhere that what will be the tenure of the High Court judge.

  • If a person is a judge of the High Court, then he can remain a judge till the age of 62 years.
  • He can also give his resignation to the president of India.
  • At the suggestion of the Parliament, the President has the power to remove high court judges from his office.
  • When any judge of the high court is appointed as a Supreme Court judge or transferred to another High court then he has the power to vacate his office.

Power of the high court

  • High courts have the right to issue writs like mandamus, habeas corpus, certiorari, prohibition, and quo-warrento. This is written in Article 226.
  • High courts are superior to Subordinate Courts that’s why high courts have Control over Subordinate Courts.
  • High courts have the right to hear both criminal and civil matters.
  • The High court has also the power to hear the matter of contempt of court.
  • High courts have the power to listen to matters related to the collection of revenue

List of high courts in India

1) The Calcutta High Court

Even after the name of Calcutta changed to Kolkata in 2001. The name of the high court is the same as the previous name “Calcutta High Court“. The jurisdiction of this high court is on one state and at one union territory and bench at Port Blair. This high court was constituted under the Indian High Courts Act of 1861. Also, it is the oldest court in India.

Territorial Jurisdiction = West Bengal and Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Year of establishment = 01-07-1862

Seat= Kolkata

2) The Bombay High Court

This high court was also constituted under the Indian High Courts Act of 1861. In 1995 Bombay’s name was changed to Mumbai but the name of the high court was not changed. The Jurisdiction of this high court is on two states and two union territories. And benches at Panaji, Aurangabad and Nagpur.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Daman and Diu.

Year of establishment = 1862

Seat = Mumbai

3) The Madras High Court

Under High Courts Act, of 1861, the Madras High Court was established with Territorial Jurisdiction on one state and one union territory. Like Calcutta and Bombay High Court name of the madras high court is also not changed.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Tamil Nadu and Puducherry

Year of establishment = 1862

Seat = Chennai

4) The Sikkim High Court

This high court was the result of the 36th Amendment in the Indian constitution having Territorial Jurisdiction only on one state.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Sikkim

Year of establishment = 1975

Seat = Gangtok

5) The Rajasthan High Court

This high court was constituted under the Rajasthan High Court Ordinance of 1949. It has jurisdiction over the state of Rajasthan and its bench is at Jaipur.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Rajasthan

Year of establishment = 1949

Seat = Jodhpur

6) Haryana High Court and Punjab high court

This high court is a common high court for two states and one union territory. It has Jurisdiction over the state of Haryana, the state of Punjab, and the union territory of Chandigarh. Before the Punjab and Haryana, the High Court name of this high court was Punjab High Court and the name of this high court was changed in 1966. This high court was constituted under the Punjab High Court Ordinance of 1947.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh

Year of establishment = 1875

Seat = Chandigarh

7) The Patna High Court

This high court is for the state of Bihar and its territorial Jurisdiction is on Bihar state only.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Bihar

Year of establishment = 1916

Seat = Patna

8) The Orissa High Court

This high court was constituted under the Orissa High Court Ordinance of 1948. Even the name of Orissa is changed to Odisha but the name of the high court is not changed.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Odisha

Year of establishment = 1948

Seat = Cuttack

9) The Madhya Pradesh High Court

This high court was also constituted under the Government of India Act of 1935 and bench at Indore and Gwalior. Firstly On January 2, 1936, it was founded as the Nagpur High Court but in 1956 the name of the high court was changed toMadhya Pradesh High Court.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Madhya Pradesh

Year of establishment = 1956

Seat = Jabalpur

10) The Guwahati High Court

This high court was constituted under the Government of India Act of 1935. The jurisdiction of this high court is on four states. Before the Guwahati High Court, the name of this court was Assam High Court and the name of this court was changed in 1971.

Territorial Jurisdiction = 4 states (Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh)

Year of establishment = 1948

Seat = Guwahati

11) The Delhi High Court

In India, there are eight union territories out of eight only Delhi has its high court despite being a union territory. This high court was constituted under the Delhi High Court Act of 1966. Its jurisdiction is in Delhi only.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Delhi

Year of establishment = 1966

Seat = Delhi

12) The Telangana High Court

This high court was also constituted under the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act of 2014. Like the Andhra Pradesh High Court, this high court is also the newest high court in India having Jurisdiction in the state of Telangana.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Telangana

Year of establishment =1 January 2019

Seat = Hyderabad

13) The Tripura High Court

Territorial Jurisdiction = Tripura

Year of establishment = 23 March 2013

Seat = Agartala

14) The Allahabad High Court

This high court was constituted under the Indian High Courts Act of 1861 and its

Jurisdiction is in Uttar Pradesh and its bench is at Lucknow.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Uttar Pradesh

Year of establishment =1866

Seat = Allahabad

15) The Kerala High Court

This is the common high court for one state and one union territory. It was constituted under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Kerala and Lakshadweep

Year of establishment = 1958

Seat = Ernakulam

16) The Karnataka High Court

The Karnataka High Court was constituted under the Mysore High Court Act of 1884 and jurisdiction is on the state of Karnataka and the bench is at Dharwad. The early name of Karnataka High Court was Mysore High Court but in 1973 the name of this high court was changed.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Karnataka

Year of establishment= 1884

Seat = Bengaluru

17) The Jammu and Kashmir High Court

This high court is also a common high court for one state and one union territory.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh

Year of establishment =1928

Seat = Srinagar and Jammu

18) The Himachal Pradesh High Court

This high court was constituted under the State of Himachal Pradesh Act of 1970. Its Jurisdiction is only on one state; Himachal Pradesh.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Himachal Pradesh

Year of establishment = 1971

Seat= Simla

19) The Gujarat High Court

The Gujarat High Court is one of India’s High Courts. This high court was constituted under the Bombay Reorganisation Act of 1960.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Gujarat

Year of establishment = 1960

Seat = Ahmedabad

20) The Chhattisgarh High Court

The Chhattisgarh High Court is one of India’s most recent High Courts. This high court was constituted under the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act of 2000. The jurisdiction of this high court is on one state.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Chhattisgarh

Year of establishment = 2000

Seat = Bilaspur

21) The Manipur High Court

Manipur high court and Meghalaya High Court both are constituted under the North-Eastern Areas and other Related Laws Act of 2012. The jurisdiction of this high court is on one state.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Manipur

Year of establishment = 2013

Seat = Imphal

22) The Meghalaya High Court

Territorial Jurisdiction = Meghalaya

Year of establishment = 2013

Seat= Shilong

23) The Jharkhand High Court

The Jharkhand High Court is one of India’s most recent High Courts. This high court was constituted under the Bihar Reorganisation Act of 2000. The jurisdiction of this high court is also on one state.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Jharkhand

Year of establishment =2000

Seat= Ranchi

24) The Uttarakhand High Court

Like Jharkhand high court this high court is also one of India’s most recent High Courts. This high court was constituted under the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act of 2000.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Uttarakhand

Year of establishment =2000

Seat = Nainital

25) The Andhra Pradesh High Court

This high court was constituted under the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act of 2014 and the jurisdiction of this high court is in one state.

Territorial Jurisdiction = Andhra Pradesh

Year of establishment = 1 January 2019

Seat = Amravati

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Bharathi Pradeep
Bharathi Pradeephttps://www.getcooltricks.com/
Editor at GetCoolTricks.com. Bharathi covers topics on Competitive exams, How To guides, Current exams, Current Affairs, Study Materials, etc. Follow her on social media using the links below.
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