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India in G-20 Summit 2023

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Bharathi Pradeep
Bharathi Pradeep
Editor at Bharathi covers topics on Competitive exams, How To guides, Current exams, Current Affairs, Study Materials, etc. Follow her on social media using the links below.

The G20 Summit 2023 just concluded in New Delhi under the Indian Presidency. The PM of India passed the gavel to Brazil, the next G20 President. The 18th meeting of the Group of Twenty was the first G20 summit to be held in India.

Official G-20 Website


  • The G20 or Group of Twenty isan intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union (EU)
  • The G20 is composed of most of the world’s largest economies, including both industrialized and developing nations, and accounts for around 90% of gross world product (GWP), 75–80% of international trade, two-thirds of the global population, and roughly half the world’s land area
  • The G20 was founded in 1999 in response to several world economic crises
  • Since 2008, it has convened at least once a year, with summits involving each member’s head of government or state, finance minister, foreign minister, and other high-ranking officials; the EU is represented by the European Commission and the European Central Bank

G20 India Presidency

The G20 is made up of 19 countries and the EU.

  • The 19 countries are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, France, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the UK, and the US.

India holds the Presidency of the G20 from 1 December 2022 to 30 November 2023.

Under the Indian Presidency, the G20 in 2023 focussed on the theme, ‘One Earth, One Family, One Future’.

  • The theme affirms the value of human, animal, plant, and microorganisms and their interconnectedness on planet Earth and in the wider universe.
  • The Indian Presidency will also spotlight Lifestyle for Environment (LiFE), with an emphasis on environmentally sustainable and responsible choices at both the individual lifestyle and the national development level, to achieve a cleaner, greener, and bluer future.

The summit had India showcase its cultural richness through diverse elements like:

  • Bharat Mandapam, inspired by Lord Basavaeshwara’s concept of Anubhav mandapam. The “culture corridor,” features a display of diverse traditions from 29 countries, including India and the special invitees to the G20.
  • The Chola-style bronze statue of Lord Nataraja.
  • Konark Chakra of Odisha’s sun temple and the image of Nalanda University were used as backdrops.
  • Showcase of Thanjavur Paintings and Dhokra art
  • A brass statue of Lord Buddha under the Bodhi tree.
  • Hindustani, Folk, and Carnatic musical heritage of India

Indian Prime Minister formally handed over the G20 presidency to the President of Brazil. India will continue to hold the position until 30 November 2023.

G20 Summit 2023

The invited countries for the year were:

  • Bangladesh, Egypt, Mauritius, Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Singapore, Spain and UAE.

Six agendas were put forth for the G20 Dialogue 2023:

  1. Green Development, Climate Finance & LiFE
  2. Accelerated, Inclusive & Resilient Growth
  3. Accelerating progress on SDGs
  4. Technological Transformation & Digital Public Infrastructure
  5. Multilateral Institutions for the 21st Century
  6. Women-led development

The working groups focused on areas like:

  • agriculture, anti-corruption, culture, digital economy, disaster risk reduction, development, education, employment, environment and climate sustainability, energy transitions, health, trade and investment, and tourism.

Major outcomes of the G20 summit 2023

  • The African Union joined the G20 as a permanent member.
  • A new organization called the Global Biofuel Alliance (GBA) was launched, to promote the development and adoption of sustainable biofuels, and set relevant standards and certification.
  • The New Delhi Leaders Declaration was adopted with consensus.
  • A group of countries made a joint agreement to build a rail and shipping corridor linking India with the Middle East and Europe called the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor. The group comprises India, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Israel and the European Union.

New Delhi declaration

The G20 2023 joint consensus declaration called the New Delhi Leaders Declaration is an official non-binding declaration that seeks to place emphasis on strong, sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth.

Central idea

  • The G20 Summit marked a successful conclusion as India transferred the G20 Presidency to Brazil. India’s performance across various socioeconomic metrics within the G20 context reveals a mixed picture of progress and challenges.

GDP per capita comparison (1970–2022)

  • 1970: India’s GDP per capita was $111.97, ranking 18th out of 19 regions analyzed. India had one of the lowest GDP per capita figures among the group.
  • 2022: By 2022, India’s GDP per capita had risen significantly to $2,388.62. However, despite this growth, India had moved to the last position among the 19 regions, indicating that other regions had experienced more substantial economic growth during this period.

Human Development Index (HDI) comparison (1990–2021)

  • 1990: In 1990, India’s HDI stood at 0.43, indicating a relatively low level of human development. At that time, India ranked towards the lower end of the list among the 19 countries and regions analyzed.
  • 2021: By 2021, India’s HDI had improved to 0.63, signifying significant progress in terms of human development over the decades. However, despite this improvement, India still ranked at the bottom of the list among the 19 regions, highlighting the need for further advancements in various aspects of human development, including life expectancy, education, and living standards.

Health Metrics Comparison

  • Life Expectancy (1990-2021):
  • In 1990, India had an average life expectancy of 45.22 years.
  • China, at the same time, had a lower average life expectancy of 33.27 years.
  • By 2021, India’s life expectancy had increased to 67.24 years.
  • Despite this improvement, India’s ranking remained the same, and China surpassed India in terms of life expectancy.
  • Infant Mortality Rate (1990-2021):
  • In 1990, India had an infant mortality rate of 88.8 per 1,000 live births, ranking it at the bottom of the 20 regions analyzed.
  • By 2021, India’s infant mortality rate had improved to 25.5 per 1,000 live births.
  • India’s ranking improved to 19th place, just ahead of South Africa (26.4), but it still lags behind many other regions in terms of infant mortality.

Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) Comparison (1990-2021-22)

  • 1990:
    • In 1990, India’s LFPR for individuals above 15 years of age was 54.2%.
    • This LFPR ranking placed India at the 18th position among the 20 regions analyzed.
    • India was ahead of Italy (49.7%) and Saudi Arabia (53.3%) in LFPR.
  • 2021-22:
    • By 2021-22, India’s LFPR had decreased to 49.5%.
    • This decline resulted in a slip in India’s ranking to 19th place.
    • India was now only ahead of Italy (49.4%) among the 20 regions in terms of LFPR.

Women’s Representation in Parliament (1998-2022)

  • 1998:
    • In 1998, women constituted 8.1% of the Indian Parliament.
    • At that time, India ranked 15th out of the 19 regions analyzed in terms of women’s representation in Parliament.
    • While there were women in leadership positions, India’s representation was relatively low compared to some other regions.
  • 2022:
    • By 2022, women’s representation in the Indian Parliament had nearly doubled to 14.9%.
    • However, despite this increase, India’s ranking had slipped to the 18th position among the 19 regions.
    • India was just ahead of Japan (9.9%) in terms of women’s representation in Parliament.

Environmental Progress

  • Carbon Emissions (1990 and 2020):
    • In 1990, India was the lowest emitter of CO2 among the 20 regions analyzed.
    • This demonstrated India’s relatively low carbon emissions at that time.
    • In 2020, India maintained its status as the lowest emitter of CO2 among the same regions, indicating a consistent trend of relatively low carbon emissions.
  • Renewable Energy Adoption (1990 and 2015):
    • In 1990, most G20 nations, excluding the U.S. and Mexico, generated less than 2% of their electricity from renewables.
    • By 2015, India had made some progress, with 5.36% of its electricity coming from renewable sources.
    • However, India’s ranking in this regard was 13th out of the 20 regions analyzed, suggesting relatively slow progress in adopting eco-friendly energy sources compared to some other G20 nations.

Global Economic Situation

  • To protect the vulnerable, through promoting equitable growth and enhancing macroeconomic and financial stability. Such an approach will help resolve the cost-of-living crisis and unlock strong, sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth.
  • To support the progress towards the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to achieve strong, sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth (SSBIG).
  • To create inclusive, sustainable, and resilient global value chains, and support developing countries to move up the value chain.
  • Chair rotation
    • To decide which member nation gets to chair the G20 leaders’ meeting for a given year, all members, except the European Union, are assigned to one of five different groupings
    • All countries within a group are eligible to take over the G20 Presidency when it is their group’s turn. Therefore, the states within the relevant group need to negotiate among themselves to select the next G20 President
  • Organization
    • The G20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff
    • The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group’s work and organizes its meetings
    • The 2023 and 2024 summits will be hosted by India and Brazil respectively
    • In addition to these 20 members, the chief executive officers of several other international forums and institutions participate in meetings of the G20
  • G20 Agenda
    • Financial Focus
      • The initial G20 agenda focused on the sustainability of sovereign debt and global financial stability in an inclusive format that would bring in the largest developing economies as equal partners
      • Further, the recurring themes covered by G20 summit participants have related in priority to global economic growth, international trade and financial market regulation
    • Inclusive growth
      • After the adoption of the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015, more “issues of global significance” were added to the G20 agenda, which include migration, digitisation, employment, healthcare, the economic empowerment of women and development aid


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Bharathi Pradeep
Bharathi Pradeep
Editor at Bharathi covers topics on Competitive exams, How To guides, Current exams, Current Affairs, Study Materials, etc. Follow her on social media using the links below.

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