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Internal Security

Black Money and Money Laundering

Black Money There is no official definition of black money in economic theory, with several different terms such as parallel economy, black money, black incomes, unaccounted economy, illegal economy and irregular economy all being used more or less synonymously. The simplest definition of...

Coastal Security in India

India's 7,516-kilometre-long coastline includes 5,422 kilometres of coastline on the mainland and 2,094 kilometres on the islands belonging to nine states and four Union Territories. The coastline accounts for 90% of the country's trade and it spans 3,331 coastal villages and 1,382 islands. The coastline houses 12 major and...

National Cyber Security Strategy

National Cyber Security Policy: Strategies Creating a secure cyber ecosystem through measures such as a national nodal agency, encouraging organisations to designate a member of senior management as the Chief Information Security Officer and developing information security policies. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging...

Cyber Security

Cyber security or information technology security are the techniques of protecting computers, networks, programs and data from unauthorised access or attacks that are aimed at the exploitation of cyber-physical systems and critical information infrastructure. Cyber threat A cyber threat or cyber security threat is defined...

Insurgency in North-Eastern India

Introduction North East India is the region situated in the easternmost part of India comprising of the eight states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim. It is linked with the Indian heartland through 21 km. wide Siliguri...

Left-Wing Extremism in India

Maoism Maoism is a form of communism developed by Mao Tse Tung. It is a doctrine to capture State power through a combination of an armed insurgency, mass mobilization and strategic alliances. The Maoists also use propaganda and disinformation against...

Central Investigative Agencies of India

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the principal investigative police agency in India. It was established in 1941 as the Special Police Establishment, entrusted with domestic security. It is an elite force which plays an indispensable...

Security Forces and Agencies

The security forces which handle different threats in India are classified into: Indian Armed Forces Paramilitary Forces of India and Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) Armed Forces/Defence Forces/Military In general, the term “Defence forces of India” means forces that are mandated to defend the country...

Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), 1958

Background The AFSPA – like many other controversial laws – is of a colonial origin. The AFSPA was first enacted as an ordinance in the backdrop of the Quit India Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942. A day after its launch on...

Militancy in Jammu and Kashmir

History of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) Pre-Independence Aurangzeb’s successors were weak rulers. Later Mughals failed to retain Kashmir. After Mughal rule, it passed to Afghan, Sikh, and Dogra rule. In 1752, Kashmir was seized by the Afghan ruler Ahmed Shah Abdali. The Afghan Durrani Empire ruled Kasmir...