The National New Education Policy was released by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under the guidance of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The National Education Policy 2020 was released on 29th July 2020, after it was approved by the Union Cabinet.
New Education Policy 2022: The New National Education Policy in India
The New Education Policy is a comprehensive policy issued by the Government of India in July 2020. It is India’s first major change to its education system in more than 30 years. It replaces the National Education Policy of 1986.
The New Educational Policy 2022 focuses on 5 pillars: Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability and Accountability. The New Education Policy aims to make education more inclusive, equitable, and accessible to all, with a special emphasis on marginalized communities.
It emphasizes the development of skills for the 21st century, such as creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving. The policy also proposed the establishment of new institutions, such as digital universities, as well as the use of technology to support students in learning.
One of the most significant changes introduced by the New Education Policy is the transition from the traditional 10+2 education structure to a new 5+3+3+4 education system. The goal of the new system is to make education more flexible and all-encompassing, with a focus on basic skills, critical thinking, and life skills.
New 5+3+3+4 Education System
The new education school system in India in 2020 introduced a 5+3+3+4 education structure. The 5+3+3+4 education structure is a major change from the previous education system in India, which was a 10+2 system. In the new system, students will spend more time in school overall, but the number of years spent in each stage of education will be reduced.
|10+2 System||5+3+3+4 System|
|Structure||Existing Academic Structure||New Academic Structure|
|Stages||2 Stages||4 Stages|
|Age Period||6-18 Year||3-18 Year|
|Time Period||12 School Year||15 Year (12 School Year + 3 Pre-School Year)|
|Stage Wise||• First Stage – Age 6-16 Years (Class 1-10)|
• Second Stage – Age 16-18 Years (Class 11-12)
|• Foundational Stage – 3 Years (Pre-School) (Age 3-6) + 2 Years (Class 1 to 2) (Age 6-8) = 5 Year|
• Preparatory Stage – 3 Years (Class 3 to 5) (Age 8-11)
• Middle Stage – 3 Years (Class 6 to 8) (Age 11-14)
• Secondary Stage – 4 Years (Class 9 to 12) (Age 14-18)
Foundational Stage (5 years)
The foundation stage will cover the first five years of a child’s education. In the first 3 years of education, children will be taught in Anganwadi, Balvatika, or community-based nurseries.
During the other two years of school, they will learn basic skills and knowledge through play-based and activity-based learning on different levels.
Preparatory Stage (3 years)
The preparatory stage will be from ages 8 to 11 and focus on foundational learning, including developing basic literacy and numeracy skills among students. The preparatory stage will help students develop their understanding of concepts in various subjects.
Middle Stage (3 years)
The middle stage will be from ages 11 to 14. During the middle stage, students will be expected to develop core academic skills such as reading, writing, and basic language competencies. They will also be expected to develop life skills such as teamwork, problem-solving, and critical thinking.
Secondary Stage (4 years)
The secondary stage will be from ages 14 to 18. During this stage, students will be expected to complete a core curriculum consisting of English, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies.
In addition, they will have the opportunity to choose from a range of electives, including languages, arts, and vocational subjects. The secondary stage aims to provide students with the skills and knowledge they need to prepare for further education or enter the workforce.
New Education Policy (NEP 2020) Highlights
The New Education Policy aims to provide quality and equitable education to all children in India. Some of the key highlights of the policy are as follows:
- The policy emphasizes providing quality and affordable education to all children in the age group of 3–18 years.
- It emphasizes holistic and multidisciplinary education instead of rote learning.
- Students will no longer be graded on how well they remember information from books, but on how well they can use what they know to solve problems in the real world.
- It emphasizes that the three-language formula will be followed in schools, focusing on the regional language, Hindi and English.
- To make it easier for students to learn regional languages, instruction in the first five grades will be taught in those languages instead of English.
- The school curriculum has been changed to teach more fundamental ideas and skills.
- The policy is mostly about how to use technology to make education more accessible and useful.
- It envisages a system where there is no distinction between rural and urban areas and all children have access to quality education.
- The policy proposes several measures to improve the quality of teaching, such as mandatory teacher eligibility tests, teacher professional development programmes, and teacher education programmes at the elementary, secondary, and tertiary levels.
- The policy also focuses on giving students vocational and technical education so that they are better prepared to work when they leave school.
- The policy proposes to set up a National Higher Education Regulatory Council to oversee the regulation of higher education institutions.
- The policy also seeks to provide greater autonomy to higher education institutions and promote academic mobility. As a result, both public and private universities will be governed by the same regulations.
- This policy introduces a new 5+3+3+4 education structure that moves away from the current 10+2 system.
- It aims to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education to 50% by 2035.
- The Government has announced that all higher education institutes (HEIs) will be governed by a single regulator, except the Medical and Law Colleges. HEIs now have to answer to a new body, the Office for Students.
- The master’s degree (MPhil) course will no longer be required.
Major Changes Under New National Education Policy
Under the new National Education Policy, significant changes have been made to the school education system in India. Some of the most notable changes are:
1. Single Regulations for All Levels of School Education
The New Education Policy (NEP) of India aims to provide universal access to education for all students, including those in Class 5. The policy focuses on providing better educational opportunities to all students, including those who may have previously been denied such opportunities.
To reduce the number of students dropping out of school, schools and colleges are looking for ways to attract more students and keep the ones they have. This may involve offering multiple learning paths that involve both formal and non-formal education modes.
As part of the NEP 2020, Students in grades 3, 5, and 8 will be able to attend open learning and open schools for free. The equivalent secondary school grade levels, 10 and 12, will also be available to all students without any tuition fees. The NEP also introduces vocational courses in the school curriculum to help increase students’ employability by exposing them to new skills and techniques.
2. New Curriculum for Early Childhood Care and Education
The New Education Policy (NEP) of India introduced a new curriculum for Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). The policy emphasizes the importance of providing high-quality ECCE to children aged 3–6 years, as it lays the foundation for their overall development and learning.
The new ECCE curriculum focuses on providing children with a holistic, play-based learning experience that promotes physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development. It includes activities such as storytelling, singing, art and craft, games, sports, and outdoor and nature-based activities. Research has shown that children learn better in their native language, so the curriculum also encourages teaching in the mother tongue or the local language.
The new ECCE curriculum also aims to improve the quality of ECCE centres in the country by setting standards for infrastructure, teacher qualifications, and the ratio of children to teachers. It also emphasizes the importance of involving parents and communities in the education of young children.
The new education policy of 2020 has proposed in numerous changes in school education. Some of the major changes are listed below:
- The new policy has eliminated the rigid 10+2 structure of education and replaced it with a new 5+3+3+4 structure.
- The new policy emphasizes the holistic development of students; hence, the curriculum has been redesigned accordingly.
- Strengthened educational systems like Anganwadis and Kindergartens will focus on early childhood education and care.
- Anganwadi workers and kindergarten teachers will be trained on how to use curriculum and teaching methods that are best for kids up to age 8.
- The new policy also emphasizes vocational education and skill development.
- Under the new policy, students will be able to choose the classes they want to take and won’t have to stick to one stream.
- The policy aims to make education more affordable and accessible to all.
- NCERT will create a national framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) for children up to 8 years old.
- Early childhood education will be administered by the Ministries of Human Resource Development, Health and Family Welfare (HFW), Women and Child Development (WCD), and Tribal Affairs.
These are just some of the many proposed changes that are set to transform school education in India. Implementing these changes will require a concerted effort from all teachers, including parents, students, and the government. But if they are successful, they have the potential to improve the quality of children’s education in India significantly.
3. Pivot on Base Literacy
The NEP strongly emphasizes the development of basic literacy and numeracy skills in school education. It recognizes that these skills are essential for students to succeed in higher levels of education and their future careers. The NEP also emphasizes the importance of developing strong reading and writing skills in students, as these are critical for lifelong learning and personal development.
To support the development of basic literacy and numeracy skills, the NEP recommends several strategies and initiatives, including:
- Reading and Writing: The NEP recommends that reading and writing be given a lot of attention in the first few years of school, especially when it comes to developing phonemic awareness and phonics skills.
- Multilingualism: The NEP recognizes the importance of multilingualism in India and recommends using the mother tongue or home language as the medium of instruction in the early years of education. This will help to ensure that children have a strong foundation in their language and are better able to learn additional languages.
- Remedial Education: The NEP recommends implementing remedial education programmes to support students struggling with basic literacy and numeracy skills. These programmes will help to ensure that no child is left behind and that all students have the opportunity to succeed.
4. Changes in the Process of Teacher Recruitment
The New Education Policy (NEP) 2020 has brought about several changes in the process of teacher recruitment in school education. Some of the key changes that are likely to be implemented include:
- Emphasis on Holistic Development: The NEP 2020 emphasizes the importance of holistic development and teachers’ role in nurturing students’ overall development. So, the process of hiring teachers will focus on finding people who are smart and have skills like communication, critical thinking, creativity, and emotional intelligence.
- National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST): The NEP 2020 has introduced the NPST, which sets the minimum standards for teachers across the country. The NPST defines teachers’ roles, responsibilities, and competencies at different levels of education. The recruitment process will consider these standards while selecting teachers.
- Greater use of Technology: The NEP 2020 advocates using technology in the recruitment process to make it more efficient and transparent. This could involve using online platforms to advertise vacancies and accept applications as well as using technology to assess candidates’ skills and competencies.
- Changes to teacher training: The NEP 2020 also proposes significant changes to how teachers are trained and prepared for the classroom. This could include the introduction of more rigorous and relevant teacher training programs as well as opportunities for ongoing professional development.
- Greater Accountability and Evaluation: The NEP 2020 emphasizes the importance of teacher accountability and performance evaluation. As part of the hiring process, there may be a bigger focus on evaluating candidates’ skills, abilities, and ability to meet students’ needs.