Key Highlights of the Global Terrorism Index 2023
- Afghanistan tops the list again: Afghanistan has retained the top spot on the list of countries impacted by terrorism for the fourth year in a row.
- India ranks 13th: India has been ranked 13th on the index, indicating a marginal decrease from the previous year.
- Pakistan’s terror-related fatalities increased: Pakistan saw the second-largest increase in terror-related fatalities globally last year, with a total of 643 deaths.
- Military personnel impacted significantly: Military personnel made up at least 55% of all casualties of terrorism.
About Global Terrorism Index
The Global Terrorism Index (GTI) is an annual report that provides a detailed analysis of the trends and patterns of terrorism worldwide. Here are some key points about the GTI:
- Published by the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP): The GTI is published annually by the IEP, a global think tank based in Sydney, Australia.
- Covers 15 years of terrorism data: The index provides a comprehensive summary of the key global trends and patterns in terrorism over the past 15 years.
- Ranks 163 countries: The report ranks 163 countries, which represent 99.7% of the world’s population, on the impact of terrorism.
- Uses multiple indicators: The GTI uses several indicators to measure the impact of terrorism, including the number of terrorist incidents, fatalities, injuries, and hostages.
- Data sources: The GTI is produced using data from TerrorismTracker of Dragonfly, which provides event records on terrorist attacks since January 1, 2007, and other sources.
Major Challenges Related to Terrorism Globally
- Terror Financing: According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, criminals are estimated to launder up to four trillion dollars a year. Fund movements by terrorists have also been concealed through charities and alternative remittance methods.
- It taints the international financial system and erodes public trust in the integrity of the system.
- Politicisation of Countering Terrorism: The members of the United Nations Security Council (P5) have exercised veto power to varying degrees when it comes to identifying terrorists.
- Also, the absence of universally accepted definitions for what constitutes terrorism provides terrorists with an edge and allows some countries to remain silent and veto any action at global institutions.
- Use of Emerging Technology by Terrorists: Innovations in computing and telecommunications like widespread internet access, end-to-end encryption, and virtual private network (VPN) have made new types of operations possible for a higher number of radicalised individuals across the globe, contributing to the threat.
- Re-energizing Counter Terrorism Agenda: It is necessary to re-energize the global agenda of counter-terrorism by emphasising the need for unity, and checking the veto power of P5 when it comes to identifying terrorists worldwide.
- Adopting a Universal Definition of Terrorism: A universal definition of terrorism is needed so that all members of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) can incorporate it into their own criminal laws, banning terror groups, prosecuting terrorists under special laws, and making cross-border terrorism an extraditable offence worldwide.
- In 1986, India proposed a draft document on the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) at the UN. However, it is yet to be adopted by the UNGA.
- Curbing Terror Funding: There is a need for stronger laws that require banks to perform due diligence on clients and to report suspicious transactions to prevent terrorism.
- Also, India can move towards regulating cryptocurrency.