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HomeArticleG4 countries ‘urgent need for reform' in U.N. Security Council 2022

G4 countries ‘urgent need for reform’ in U.N. Security Council 2022

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Bharathi Pradeep
Bharathi Pradeep
Editor at Bharathi covers topics on Competitive exams, How To guides, Current exams, Current Affairs, Study Materials, etc. Follow her on social media using the links below.


Recently, the G4 countries have collaborated to reiterate support for each other’s bids to become permanent members of the UNSC, and for representation of African countries in the 76th Session of the U.N. General Assembly.


The Common Consensus

  • The group is primarily focused on UN Security Council (UNSC) reform and permanent membership of the body for G4 members.
  • Reiterated the joint commitment to work towards negotiations that leads to Reformed Multilateralism.
  • The G4 also reiterated its support for African countries being represented in a permanent and non-permanent capacity on a reformed Council.
  • They also agreed that the UN decision-making body needs to be reformed as a global issue.
  • They demanded a more transparent working of the council’s decision-making body.

What are the Key Highlights of the G-4 Meeting

  • They felt that the UN decision-making bodies needed to be urgently reformed as global issues were increasingly complex and interconnected.
  • Further, they reiterated their joint commitment to work toward text-based negotiations that lead to Reformed Multilateralism.
  • They highlighted that General Assembly did not make “meaningful progress” in the Inter-Governmental Negotiations (IGN) and lacked transparency.
  • They reiterated their support for African countries being represented in a permanent and non-permanent capacity.
  • The Ministers agreed on the need for enhanced role and presence of developing countries and major contributors to the United Nations to enhance the capacity of the Council to respond effectively to the complex and evolving challenges on questions of international peace and security.

They said

Reiterated our joint commitment to work towards text-based negotiations that leads to Reformed Multilateralism. Will continue our cooperation towards this goal,” Mr Jaishankar tweeted after the meeting.

India is currently a non-permanent member of the Council, with its two-year term ending on December 31 this year.

Why It Is Needed

‘There is a clear need for an enhanced role of developing countries and of major contributors to the United Nations to make the Council more legitimate, effective and representative,” the G4 said in the statement. “Africa needs to be represented in both the permanent and non-permanent categories of membership of a reformed and expanded Security Council to correct the historical injustice against this continent with regard to its under-representation,” it added. “What is needed is a representative UN Security Council to help us restore confidence in international cooperation and global governance urgent more than ever in these testing times,” the G4 said.

G4 Countries

  • The G4 nations, comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan, are four countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council.
  • Unlike the G7, where the common denominator is the economy and long-term political motives, the G4’s primary aim is the permanent member seats on the Security Council.
  • Each of these four countries has figured among the elected non-permanent members of the council since the UN’s establishment
  • Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable to the permanent members (P5)
  • G4 campaigns for U.N. Reforms, including more representation for developing countries, both in  the permanent and non-permanent categories, in the UNSC
  • France supports the inclusion of G4 and an African representative as a permanent member with no objection to the veto power being extended to new permanent members. UK supports G4 as new members but without veto power.
  • G4’s bids are often opposed by Uniting for Consensus movement or Coffee Club (ground 12 countries including Pakistan led by Italy) and particularly their economic competitors or political rivals.

United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and G4 Countries

  • The UN currently has five permanent members with veto power in the Security Council: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • The G4 nations are regularly elected to two-year terms on the Security Council as non-permanent members by their respective regional groups.
  • Brazil and Japan were elected for five terms each, Germany for four terms (one term as West Germany and three terms as unified Germany) and India for four terms.

India Demanding the Permanent Membership of the UNSC

  • Overview
    • For the first 40 years of the UN Security Council’s formation, India never asked for permanent membership.
    • Even in 1993 when India submitted its written proposal to the UN in response to the General Assembly resolution related to reforms, it did not specifically state that it wants permanent membership for itself.
    • It is only in the last few years that India has started asking for permanent membership in the council.
    • India deserves a permanent place in the council considering the size of its economy, population and the fact that it is the largest democracy in the world.
      • India has become a major player not only in Asia but also in the world.
      • The Security Council would be a more representative body if India would be there in it as a permanent member.
  • Need
    • By having veto power, one can enjoy enormous powers.
      • Since 2009, India was trying to designate Masood Azhar as a global terrorist. One veto power of China kept delaying it.
    • India will be able to work better for its interests.
      • There was a time when the USSR actually started boycotting the UNSC and that was the time when US managed to get the resolution passed for the Korean War. From that time onwards USSR realized that it doesn’t make sense to boycott the UN. It needs to keep veto if at all resolution is against them.
    • India’s presence as a permanent member will be an acknowledgement of its rise as a global power, ready to play a key role in the council’s objectives of international peace and security.
    • India will be able to enjoy the ‘prestige’ associated with the permanent members of the council.


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Bharathi Pradeep
Bharathi Pradeep
Editor at Bharathi covers topics on Competitive exams, How To guides, Current exams, Current Affairs, Study Materials, etc. Follow her on social media using the links below.

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